Verbala delarna på 2015 HT

Diskussioner kring ELF-delen samt ELF-uppgifter
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Verbala delarna på 2015 HT

Inläggav Madridistan » lör 26 dec, 2015 10:42

Skulle någon vänlig själ kunna skicka till mig verbala delarna från provet nu i höstas fast med ELF? Hittar den inte på studera.nu tror dom har tagit bort det vid det här laget. Skicka den till min mejl: ronaldoarsen@hotmail.com
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Re: Verbala delarna på 2015 HT

Inläggav Madridistan » mån 28 dec, 2015 0:27

Ingen som har dom? :(
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Re: Verbala delarna på 2015 HT

Inläggav Panda » mån 28 dec, 2015 12:55

New Scotland Yard
New Scotland Yard may be a beacon of law and order in the heart of London, but the sight of its lights burning through the night has taken on a different meaning. Staff at the HQ of the Metropolitan Police use so much lighting, heating, cooling and electricity that the tower pumps out 13,491 tonnes of carbon dioxide a year – equivalent to about 2,200 households. It makes it the most polluting police station in England and Wales and one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gases of any public building in Britain.

Question

31. What is implied here?

A The Metropolitan Police are working hard to cut down on greenhouse gases..
B New Scotland Yard need to reassess their consumption of electricity.
C The Metropolitan Police have never been a guiding light for people in London.
D New Scotland Yard have lost the confidence of the British people.


Animal Life
It took a mere 85 million years – the geologic blink of an eye – for animals to evolve and radiate out over much of the world’s land and oceans. Although fossil records and molecular biology have provided much information on the spread of animal life, scientists have not been able to figure out exactly what sparked this massive diversification. New research shows that nutrient-rich runoff from massive melting glaciers may have provided the extra energy needed to fuel this dramatic evolution.

Question

32. What is said about evolution in this text?

A Historically, many animals have early global warming to thank for their existence.
B The extensive spread of animals across our globe millions of years ago led to global warming.
C The original spread of animal life throughout the planet was probably helped by melting ice.
D Millions of years ago, melting ice almost put an end to animal life on earth.


Africans in the Indian Mutiny
Throughout 2007, the 200th anniversary of the abolition of slavery, the focus was naturally on the shipment of African slaves to the West Indies, but no mention was made of the trade eastwards from Africa to the Indian subcontinent or of the Arab traders who sold slaves to wealthy Indian rulers. Although a few Africans rose to positions of power in India, some even establishing small kingdoms, most entered the country as slaves. Their descendants are found today in Gujarat and along the southern coast. But little is known about those slaves shipped in through Bombay and Karachi and taken eastwards to be sold.

Anecdotal stories of African soldiers fighting against the British during the Indian Mutiny (also known as the Indian Uprising) occur in military memoirs and particularly those from Oudh, the last princely state to be annexed by the East India Company. The two events, the annexation in 1856 followed by the mutiny of 1857–58, are closely connected. Many of the Indian troops who turned against their British officers came from Oudh. Although there was much wrong in the kingdom, presided over by its last monarch the Nawab Wajid Ali Shah (1822–87), the inhabitants preferred to be ruled by their own king, whatever his faults, rather than by the British. This was something that Lord Dalhousie, the Governor General of India, had signally failed to appreciate when he ordered Oudh to be annexed on the grounds of misrule.

Some of the fiercest Mutiny fighting took place in its capital, Lucknow, where the Nawab had recently created a huge palace. During the siege and the subsequent recapture of the city in March 1858, African men and women were involved in the thick of the street fighting. Why these men and women supported their former master, the slaveowning Wajid Ali Shah, rather than the British, who had prohibited slavery, can be answered from British Government records in the Delhi National Archives.

There are fragmentary accounts of Africans in Lucknow brought in by earlier rulers. Wajid Ali Shah’s great-grandfather, a keen horseman, had employed ‘habshi boys’ as jockeys at the turn of the 19th century. A great-uncle had ordered and bought 18 slaves, who arrived at Bombay in an Arab ship and who were brought overland in covered carriages. Wajid Ali Shah’s own father ordered 200 swords for his African troops. So the custom of employing Africans and an overland slave-trading route was already established. As many as 1,000 male and female African slaves may have arrived in Lucknow in 1847 and 1848. Although Africans were employed elsewhere in India, the Nawabs of Oudh seem unique in importing women as well as men.

In 1860, with the British firmly back in control, the remaining Africans in Lucknow petitioned the Chief Commissioner for pensions. This was not a completely futile hope because many people who had been dependent on the Nawab for their livelihood did receive small sums from the British government in compensation for losing their source of income. However, the Africans’ petition was turned down and over the next two decades their pleas became more urgent as their numbers dwindled. A large number were said to have died from starvation, while others had left the city.

The care and financial support given by the British government to slaves in Bombay contrasts starkly with the official indifference shown to the Africans in Lucknow. For backing the ‘wrong side’ during the Mutiny they were still being punished 20 years later. Only one sympathetic voice was heard in their defence. Sir William Muir, head of the Intelligence Department during the Mutiny, declared in May 1877: “The fact that they fought against us at Lucknow ought not to be brought against them – it was probably natural; the fact that they fought bravely is surely in their favour!”

African men and women came to Oudh as slaves to satisfy the whims of the last king, who then left them unprovided for when he was deposed. They fought bravely in the Mutiny, a fight which was not of their making, and have been paying the price ever since.

ROSIE LLEWELLYN-JONES, HISTORY TODAY

Questions

33. What is true according to the opening paragraph?

A There were more Africans sold as slaves to India than to the West Indies.
B Not all Africans in India were imported as slaves.
C There are hardly any traces left in India of the Africans who were once slaves.
D Most slaves in India were of African origin.

34. What is implied in relation to the kingdom of Oudh?

A It had been ruled by the British military for ages.
B Its king started the uprising as a result of British oppression.
C It was notorious among the British for its slave trade.
D Its people refused to be subjected to British rule.

35. In what way can the fighting in Lucknow be characterized as somewhat paradoxical, according to the text?

A The Indians and the Africans took part in the conflict for different reasons.
B The British soldiers did not expect African women to serve as soldiers in Wajid Ali Shah’s army.
C The Africans defended their slave owner against the anti-slavery British.
D The British were only able to defeat Wajid Ali Shah with the help of his former slaves.

36. What are we told in connection with the import of Africans to India?

A It was exclusively for military purposes that Indian kings were eager to buy slaves from Africa.
B Africans had been brought to India long before the Indian Mutiny.
C It was common for Indian rulers to use both men and women from Africa as slave labour.
D The Indian Mutiny was triggered by the Africans who were brought to India.

37. What was the British government’s attitude towards former African slaves in India?

A It usually refused to take responsibility for them.
B Its policy with regard to economic help to them was inconsistent.
C It offered no compensation for their loss of income when freed.
D Its recognition of their human rights was ahead of its time.



And here are some shorter texts:

TV Psychology
There has clearly been an explosion in TV psychology in the past few years. The schedules are crammed with programmes showcasing different kinds of therapy. Makeover shows for the soul are the latest version of reality TV and often make for compelling viewing. However, therapists’ views are divided on this new phenomenon. Some worry about the dumbing down and exploitation that sometimes takes place, whereas others are grateful that the potential of therapy, and a more psychologically aware approach to life, is being brought to a wider audience. But ethical questions do arise. Often these programmes unearth deeper emotional issues of which the participants were unaware when they originally agreed to take part.

Question

38. What is implied in this text about TV psychology?

A Recent evidence suggests that it has no lasting therapeutic impact.
B Viewers in general tend to dismiss it as a rather boring trend with little real drama.
C There is a consensus that its disadvantages outweigh its good effects.
D People taking part run the risk of personally sensitive issues becoming public knowledge.


Teenagers and Language
Since 1915, adults in the U.S. have made huge vocabulary gains and young people only modest ones. Now, that’s a symptom of the growing potency of teenage subculture. Rather than being socialized into the adult speech community, teenagers are resistant. They can understand what you say but they’re reluctant to use your language and they want to retreat into their own dialect. In 1950, I could both understand my parents’ language and use it. Teenage subculture is a modern phenomenon and quite bizarre. I was 16 years old in 1950 and it never occurred to any of us that we were in some blessed state that we wanted to perpetuate.

Question

39. What is the main claim here about language use in the U.S.?

A In 1950, teenagers found it easier to understand adult language than they do today.
B Today, teenagers are more eager to use non-adult language than 50 or 100 years ago.
C Due to more contact with adults, teenagers usually learned more words in 1950 than today.
D The relationship between the language of teenagers and adults is the same today as in 1915.


Meanings
Consider the following statements: “War continues.” “No sign of peace.” Does our brain treat these two sentences differently, despite their identical meaning? A new study suggests it does. British researchers showed that we are better at detecting words that carry negative meaning than those that are positive. Volunteers were exposed to a word for a fraction of a second – too short a time to consciously read the word – and then asked to guess whether the word was neutral or had emotional content (either positive or negative). The subjects were most accurate at detecting the negative words. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not clear, but researchers speculate that the brain might process negative stimuli faster than positive ones. A different explanation could be that information processing is equally fast for both types of information but that negative words better capture our attention, causing the processing to start earlier.


40. What are we told in this text?

A Positive information is most easily understood by the human brain.
B Research shows brain activity to be similar for negative and neutral information.
C Brain activity seems to be quicker when dealing with negative information.
D Brain activity seems relatively slow when briefly exposed to single words.

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Re: Verbala delarna på 2015 HT

Inläggav Panda » mån 28 dec, 2015 12:56

Which Pills Work?
Physicians have 31_____ vitamin D supplements to their patients for a decade, with good reason: dozens of studies have shown a correlation between high intake of vitamin D – far higher than most people would get in a typical diet and from exposure to the sun – and lower rates of chronic diseases, such as cancer and type 1 diabetes. So when the Institute of Medicine, which advises the government on health policy, concluded in November that vitamin D supplements were unnecessary for most Americans and 32_____ harmful, patients were understandably confused.

The issue exposes a rift among experts over what constitutes valid proof when it 33_____ nutrition and could affect medical advice on many other supplements. On the one hand are scientists who insist that the only acceptable standard is the randomized clinical trial, which often compares the effects of a medical intervention, such as high intake of vitamin D, with those of a placebo. The scientists who reviewed the vitamin D findings fall heavily into this camp. On the other hand is the institute panel which discarded a raft of observational studies, in which researchers compare the health of populations who take vitamin D supplements with those who do not. In theory, such epidemiological studies are 34_____ to clinical studies because they rely on observations out in the real world, where it is impossible to control for the variables scientists seek to understand. Researchers compensate for the lack of control by using large sample sizes – some vitamin D studies track 50,000 people – and applying statistical techniques. According to these studies, high levels of vitamin D are generally beneficial.

In the aftermath of the institute report, some physicians are now taking potshots at clinical studies. In nutrition, they say, true placebo groups are hard to maintain —how do you prevent people in a control group from, say, picking up extra vitamin D from sunlight and food, which can lead to the vitamin’s 35_____? It is also tough to single out the effect of one vitamin or mineral from others, because many work in tandem.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

Alternatives
31.
A recommended
B committed
C attributed
D forbidden

32.
A accordingly
B potentially
C substantially
D increasingly

33.
A refers to
B deals with
C rules out
D comes to

34.
A superior
B equal
C inferior
D distant

35.
A mechanisms
B ingredients
C benefits
D drawbacks

Forensic Evidence
Thanks to TV programmes like CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, forensics is perceived as a glamorous science. In reality, of course, it is anything but, and in some cases it isn’t particularly scientific either. Fingerprints, tool marks and similar evidence can be invaluable in bringing a criminal to justice. The problem is that expert witnesses have tended to exaggerate what forensic techniques can tell us.

Forensic science has to transform itself. For a role model it could look to DNA analysis, with its careful attention to what the evidence can and cannot tell us. There are signs a change is already under way, but it is not happening fast enough. The big obstacle is the courts. Expert witnesses command great authority in the eyes of jurors and judges, and problems arise when the so-called experts claim greater precision for their techniques than they can support.

In the US, some courts have adopted screening mechanisms to try to prevent untrustworthy experts from testifying, but this is a problem when judges without extensive scientific training have to decide whether practitioners know what they are talking about. Courts have traditionally deferred to “the scientific community” to help them distinguish respected practitioners from charlatans. However, in some forensic sciences, many of the practitioners are not scientists.

This was the difficulty faced by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts in a recent murder trial. The point at issue was the reliability of fingerprint identification. The state argued that, since all fingerprint examiners believe fingerprint examination is fail-safe, the court should back it. The defendant argued that a broad cross-section of scientists and scholars who had studied the issue agreed that the reliability of fingerprinting will never be known until its accuracy is measured – something that has yet to be done.

The court backed the practitioners. It ruled that, in order to be admissible evidence, fingerprinting needed to be accepted only among practising fingerprint examiners. This was a victory for the state, and a defeat for science. According to the courts logic, any community of practitioners is now entitled to assess its own reliability.

This is unfortunate because many forensic disciplines appear ill equipped or disinclined to take a rigorous empirical approach. A century of fingerprint practice went by before the first attempt to measure its accuracy was published. The FBI recently laid out an ambitious research agenda to place fingerprinting on a more scientific footing, but only after it was forced to admit that a false fingerprint identification had wrongly implicated an Oregon lawyer in the Madrid train bombings of 2004.

A good illustration of the lack of research underpinning much forensic science is the use by the FBI of an esoteric technique called comparative bullet lead analysis (CBLA), which rested on untested assumptions about the diversity of lead sources and their chemical consistency. The validity of these assumptions was only addressed in the 1990s. In 2004, the FBI discontinued CBLA after a critical report from the National Research Council (NRC).

What does this say about the state of forensic science? At a National Academy of Sciences colloquium, Ronald Singer, former president of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, said the CBLA episode showed forensic science was “self-correcting”. That is a generous interpretation, considering that it took more than 30 years for the FBI to fund the NRC report.

Here’s another way of viewing it: the FBI’s use of CBLA turned the usual relationship between law and science on its head. Rather than performing scientific research to determine what can responsibly be said about a form of evidence, and then offering such testimony in court, it appears the FBI testified first and did the science later.

Change is coming. Scientists from many disciplines are taking an interest in forensic science. But unless the courts stop rewarding practitioners for ignoring science, the revolution is likely to take longer than it should.

SIMON A. COLE, NEW SCIENTIST

Questions
36. What is the main focus of the first two paragraphs?

A The scientific basis of forensics has been greatly extended in recent years.
B Those practising forensic science do not seem to realize its limitations.
C Forensic evidence is often played down in criminal investigations.
D The public are getting a false picture of what forensics is really like.

37. What is implied about the courts in relation to forensic evidence?

A Their scientific competence is now considerably greater than it used to be.
B They are fully aware of the shaky reputation of forensic experts in general.
C Their scientific ignorance makes them rely too much on outdated research.
D They tend to put too much trust in witnesses claiming expertise in forensics.

38. What is said about the use of fingerprint evidence in court?

A No one can say for sure how much it should be depended on as proof.
B Research has demonstrated that it is far less exact than DNA analysis.
C Scientific investigations of its efficiency have drawn different conclusions.
D Experience has shown that it may be regarded as foolproof.

39. What is argued about the FBI in connection with forensics?

A It has always been careful not to overuse forensic material as evidence in court.
B Its use of comparative bullet lead analysis was based on careful chemical research.
C It has been slow to test the validity of forensic evidence by scientific methods.
D Its refusal to question current fingerprinting practice is well justified.

40. How can the article best be described?
It is ...
A an account of an ongoing conflict between forensic research and practice.
B a presentation of the progress of recent forensic science research.
C an argument that forensic research should never consider itself above the law.
D a request for greater respect among researchers for forensic practitioners.

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Re: Verbala delarna på 2015 HT

Inläggav Panda » mån 28 dec, 2015 13:00

Jag har bara uppe webbläsaren sedan provet var i höstas innan de tog bort elf delarna, gick inte att skriva ut eller spara ner som doc så du får nöja dig med det här.

Facit, ord, läs och mek finns väl kvar på studera.nu i pdf format..


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